Where does the principles come from?

Prior to the implementation of the World Anti-Doping Code (Code)—the core document that provides the framework for harmonized Anti-Doping policies, rules, and regulations within sports organizations and among public authorities —, the principle of strict liability had been applied by the International Olympic Committee in its Anti-Doping Code as well as by the vast majority of pre-Code Anti-Doping sports rules.

What is strict liability?

Each athlete is strictly liable for the substances found in his/her bodily, and that an Anti-Doping rule violation occurs whenever a prohibited substance (or its metabolites or markers) is found in bodily specimen, whether or not the athlete intentionally or unintentionally used a prohibited substance or was negligent or otherwise at fault.

The principle of strict liability is applied in situations where urine/blood samples collected from an athlete have produced adverse analytical results (positive test). 

How it works?

If the sample came from an in-competition test, then the results of the athlete for that competition are automatically invalidated.

The rule which provides that under Article 2.1 and Article 2.2, it is not necessary that intent, Fault, negligence, or knowing Use on the Athlete’s part be demonstrated by the Anti-Doping Organization in order to establish an Anti-Doping rule violation.